The Impact of Tranexamic Acid on the End result of Whole Ankle Substitute


The Impact of Tranexamic Acid on the End result of Whole Ankle Substitute

Background: An infection charges after whole ankle substitute (TAR) are recognized to be higher than these after hip or knee arthroplasty. Swelling after TAR could make wound therapeutic harder, which may result in an infection. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been proven to attenuate blood loss after surgical procedure, bettering therapeutic outcomes. We goal to evaluate the impact of TXA on blood loss and wound problems in TAR.

Strategies: The analysis regarded retrospectively at sufferers who had TAR procedures between September 2014 and December 2019. The procedures had been finished utilizing the anterior method at a single hospital by two, foot and ankle surgeons. Tranexamic acid was given intraoperatively earlier than the tourniquet was inflated. The surgeons didn’t use surgical drains. Pre and postoperative hemoglobin ranges, end result scores in addition to post-operative problems had been all documented.

Outcomes: A complete of 69 sufferers had been included within the research with 33 of them receiving TXA. With a imply age of 67.2, we had 31 females and 38 males. Tranexamic acid was given in doses starting from 1 gm to 2 gm. Not one of the sufferers required blood transfusions after surgical procedure, and there was no statistically vital distinction in pre and postoperative hemoglobin ranges between the 2 teams. Within the TXA group, there have been fewer wound problems. The TXA group achieved higher outcomes in comparison with the non-TXA group (p=0.0130).

Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is secure and efficient in decreasing postoperative bleeding and preserving hemostasis after deflating the tourniquet, lowering edema and postoperative wound issues similar to breakdown and dehiscence.


For a excessive variety of sufferers with appreciable joint harm, whole ankle substitute (TAR) has change into a viable surgical possibility [1]. As a result of it provides a great vary of movement and facilitates early mobilization, TAR has been demonstrated to beat the earlier challenges related to fusion [2]. Moreover, TAR has a sooner rehabilitation course and significantly greater useful outcomes, significantly in younger, high-demand sufferers [3]. Nonetheless, in comparison with hip or knee arthroplasty, the incidence of an infection, nerve damage, implant loosening, and periprosthetic fracture can’t be thought to be minimal [4]. Infections after whole hip or knee substitute have been noticed in as much as 3% of sufferers, whereas profound an infection charges after whole ankle arthroplasty (TAR) has been reported to be as excessive as 13% in a current meta-analysis [4,5]. Impaired wound therapeutic can lead to a deep an infection, which is a life-threatening situation [6]. Inadequate blood stream within the wound margins as a result of an improper pores and skin incision or extreme tender tissue dissection are two frequent causes of wound therapeutic difficulties.

Moreover, a considerable amount of swelling would possibly trigger pores and skin necrosis, resulting in an infection [7]. The administration of perioperative blood loss, particularly postoperative hemarthrosis, is a controllable issue affecting affected person restoration, complication charges, and hospital bills, in line with a assessment of the literature on whole knee and whole hip arthroplasty (TKA) and whole hip arthroplasty (THA) [8]. Drain output has been utilized to find out the quantity of blood that has gathered intra-articularly. Diminished drain output signifies a discount in hemarthrosis, which might assist relieve strain on the wound and scale back wound issues [9]. Anti-fibrinolytic medication like tranexamic acid (TXA) assist scale back blood loss, postoperative soakage, seroma, and swelling in sufferers who’ve each regular and extreme fibrinolytic responses to surgical procedure and trauma, lowering the danger of postoperative or post-injury issues [10,11,12]. Tranexamic acid is an artificial lysine spinoff with a molecular weight of 157 g/mol that makes use of a reversible interplay with plasminogen and the lively protease, plasmin, to exert its anti-fibrinolytic operate [13]. Tranexamic acid will be administered via each intravenous or topical /infiltration routes, and most printed analysis revealed each methods to be efficient [13]. On the mobile degree, fibrin is continually deposited and eradicated by fibrinolytic mechanisms. Tranexamic acid inhibits proteolytic degradation of fibrin by blocking the attachment of plasminogen and plasmin [14]. Kwaan et al. [15] have beforehand proven, in pores and skin wounds, that anti-fibrinolytic brokers improve collagen synthesis and tensile energy inside granulation tissue, presumably by preserving the fibrin matrix. Moreover, Vinckier et al.’s research concluded that TXA might speed up regular wound therapeutic by stabilizing the fibrin constructions throughout the non-collapsible dental socket [16].

On this case collection, we examine the impact of TXA in ankle arthroplasty, evaluating the outcomes of those that acquired TXA to the group who didn’t. We report the blood loss and the postoperative wound problems. This case collection has been reported in step with the ‘participation accountability openness dedication experimentation sensitivity sense’ (PROCESS) standards [17].

Supplies & Strategies

This was a retrospective research that didn’t require Institutional Assessment Board/ethics committee approval. Knowledge was collected from the operative theatre information, affected person notes, outpatient clinic letters, and the Image Archiving and Communication System (PACS) model 6 (Centricity, GE Healthcare, Chicago, USA) for picture analysis. Sufferers with incomplete scientific information had been excluded from the research. A retrospective evaluation was carried out on 69 consecutive sufferers who underwent TAR surgical procedures with the Integra® and Cadence® whole ankle prosthesis between September 2014 and December 2019. All surgical procedures had been carried out at one establishment by two, foot and ankle surgeons via the anterior method. Intraoperatively, TXA was given earlier than tourniquet inflation. The surgeons didn’t use any type of surgical drains. We recorded sufferers’ demographics, co-morbidities, sort of anaesthesia, dose of TXA, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin ranges, indications for surgical procedure, surgical procedures, wound problems, and postoperative problems.

To evaluate useful outcomes, the Manchester-Oxford foot questionnaires (MOXFQ) had been recorded perioperatively and postoperatively. The MOXFQ patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are a set of 16 self-administered, paper-based assessments [18]. Strolling/standing, ache, and social interplay are the three domains measured by the PROs. Sufferers react on a five-point Likert scale starting from no limitation to excessive limitation. Every area’s rating is derived by including the replies to every merchandise inside that area. The uncooked scores will be translated to a 0 to 00 scale, with 100 being probably the most vital. All problems had been documented. Wound an infection, deep an infection, aseptic loosening, malalignment, nerve or tendon damage, venous thromboembolism, and periprosthetic fracture are vital issues. Minor problems had been famous, together with stiffness, unfastened our bodies, and heterotopic ossification. Our definition of revision is “any surgical procedure resulting in trade or elimination of any prosthetic element aside from the incidental trade of the polyethylene insert in a movable bearing (three-component) ankle substitute,” as proposed by Henricson et al. [19].

The statistical bundle for social science (SPSS) model 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was used to analyze demographic information with descriptive statistics.


Sixty-nine sufferers with full information had been included within the research, together with 31 females and 38 males. Thirty-three acquired TXA, whereas 36 didn’t. The imply age was 67.2 years (customary deviation (SD)=10.16). Indications of surgical procedure had been recorded as failed fusion in 5 sufferers, post-traumatic arthritis in 18 sufferers, and relaxation as osteoarthritis. Cadence implants had been utilized in 43 sufferers, and 26 had Integra TAR. The anesthetics diverse between basic and spinal, and the popliteal block was recorded in solely six sufferers. The dose of TXA diverse between 1 gm and a pair of gm. The preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) and wound problems are reported in Desk 1 and Desk 2. Not one of the sufferers required blood transfusion postoperatively. No instances of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolisms had been reported.

  Preoperative Hb Postoperative Hb
TXA 138.3 (SD 11.9) 128.1 (SD 9.87)
Non-TXA 138.6 (SD 13.8) 127 (SD 15.5)
P-value 0.9236 0.7289
95% Confidence interval -6.5186 to 5.9186 -5.2093 to 7.4093
Age/Intercourse PMH Anesthetics TXA Preop Hb Postop Hb Indication Postop complication Administration
63/M OA GA No 140 128 OA Delayed wound therapeutic Noticed
63/M Despair Spinal No 122 116 Publish-traumatic OA Delayed wound therapeutic Noticed
76/F HTN, NIDDM, Hypothyroid Spinal No 139 124 OA Deep An infection Washout/IV antibiotics
52/M DM GA No 174 173 OA, Failed fusion Superficial an infection Oral antibiotics
70/M GERD Spinal No 149 131 Publish-traumatic OA Delayed wound therapeutic Noticed
62/F COPD, Smoker Spinal No 136 120 Publish-traumatic OA Superficial an infection Oral antibiotics
56/F Bronchial asthma GA No 136 118 OA Wound dehiscence NPWT
40/F Match and nicely GA No 126 120 Publish-traumatic OA Wound dehiscence Noticed
57/F Studying issue GA Sure: 1 gm 133 122 OA Wound dehiscence Noticed
75/M OA Spinal Sure: 2 gm 131 127 OA Wound dehiscence NPWT
77/M Match and nicely Spinal Sure: 1.5 gm 143 120 OA Superficial an infection Oral antibiotics

4 instances of wound an infection had been reported on this collection which represents 5.8%. Just one affected person (1.4%) required a proper washout within the theatre. Three sufferers out of 33 TXA sufferers (9%) developed wound problems. There have been two instances of wound dehiscence, considered one of which required destructive strain wound remedy (NPWT). One (3%) developed superficial wound an infection, which responded to oral antibiotics.

Eight out of 36 non-TXA sufferers (22%) developed wound problems. Three (8.3%) had delayed wound therapeutic, one deep an infection had formal washout (2.8%), two superficial (5.6%) wound an infection instances responded to oral antibiotics, and two instances (5.6%) of wound dehiscence, considered one of which required NPWT (Determine 1). The Chi-square assessments revealed a big statistical distinction between the 2 teams (p=0.002) when evaluating the incidence of wound problems.

The preoperative imply MOXFQ for all sufferers was 85.35 (SD±6.31) which was considerably improved to 18.15 (SD±13.64). The TXA group achieved higher outcomes in comparison with the non-TXA group (p=0.0130). The outcomes of pre and postoperative MOXFQ for every group are reported in Desk 3.

  Preoperative MOXFQ (SD) Postoperative MOXFQ (SD)
TXA 86.31 (SD±5.33) 13.96 (SD±11.17)
Non-TXA 84.46 (SD±6.98) 21.98 (SD±14.55)
P-value 0.2234  0.0130
95% Confidence interval -4.8548 to 1.1548 1.7447 to 14.2953


Our research assessed the impact of TXA in ankle arthroplasty. There was no staconcerningnificant distinction with regard to blood loss (p=0.728). Nonetheless, there was a big impact on wound problems (p=0.002). The TXA group reported three sufferers with wound problems whereas there have been eight sufferers within the non-TXA group. Moreover, the TXA group reported considerably higher end result scores following TAR (p=0.013).

Whole ankle substitute surgical procedure has change into an efficient administration possibility with extra favorable outcomes than ankle fusion [1]. Moreover, current advances in prosthetic designs have considerably improved the survival and brief to midterm scientific and radiological outcomes. However, wound problems and surgical web site infections stay main issues with charges starting from 0% to 13%, with diabetes, autoimmune illnesses, smoking, and coronary and peripheral vascular illness as threat elements [4,5]. The ankle, when in comparison with hips and knees, has a skinny, tender tissue protection with no elaborate elastic properties [9,20]. Thus, the resultant swelling from intraoperative soft-tissue launch and the bleeding from bone and blood vessels should not nicely accommodated by the small intra-articular quantity [20].

Though utilizing a tourniquet in TAR will considerably scale back intraoperative blood loss, the interior bleeding after releasing the tourniquet comes with an elevated threat of postoperative swelling, ache, and wound problems. Moreover, sufferers with no arterial illness often have a wealthy vascular provide surrounding the ankle, and these blood vessels don’t tolerate dislocation and subluxation, as within the case of THA or TKA [21]. Therefore the shear forces can simply tear the branches of the anterior tibial, inflicting extra bleeding and swelling [22]. Subsequently, lowering hemarthrosis throughout the ankle joint could result in a lower in postoperative swelling, decreased ache, and elevated vary of movement because of the diminished potential for fibrosis [23]. 

At the moment, most hip and knee surgeons are routinely utilizing TXA to attenuate the quantity of intraoperative bleeding. Yuan et al. carried out a research in 2014 to see if TXA might heal the pores and skin barrier utilizing injured pores and skin fashions and tight intercellular connections. They concluded that TXA would possibly pace pores and skin barrier therapeutic and upregulate occludin induced by physicochemical harm to human pores and skin utilizing bioengineering applied sciences and immunohistochemical assays [24]. Björlin et al. [25] studied the impact of epsilon-aminocaproic acid and TXA on wound therapeutic in white rats. Wounds injected with TXA had greater tensile energy than these pre-treated with epsilon-aminocaproic acid. Even when in contrast with the identical ionic energy, related outcomes had been obtained. Guerreiro et al. investigated the position of TXA in whole knee arthroplasty in a randomized management trial [26]. Earlier than the joint capsule was closed, 22 sufferers got topical TXA. Within the preliminary hours after introducing TXA, decreased ache and boosted flexion acquire along with a discount in bleeding had been famous. Although explicit analysis revealed that TXA might need antagonistic results on tendon restore [27], some authors advocated for TXA’s helpful elements on wound therapeutic and pores and skin regeneration. Björlin et al. highlighted that TXA has a great impression on the therapeutic course of and this impact is just not because of the anti-fibrinolytic properties, as each are potent fibrinolytic inhibitors.

As well as, Gupta et al. [28] regarded on the position of TXA in lowering wound an infection in orthopedic sufferers after surgical procedure. A complete of 120 surgical procedures had been included within the research, together with backbone, intertrochanteric fractures, hip hemiarthroplasty, and basic trauma. Two of the 60 sufferers on TXA grew to become contaminated, whereas 4 of the 60 sufferers who weren’t on TXA grew to become contaminated. Of their collection, Mannan et al. [13] concluded that TXA improves hemostasis after deflating the tourniquet, and reduces the swelling and wound problems postoperatively. Additionally they recommended that TXA is efficient in lowering wound dehiscence charge, and the necessity for extended antibiotics. As elbows too are just like ankles as they’ve skinny, tender tissue protection and small intra-articular quantity.

On this research, we noticed a big discount in postoperative wound problems in sufferers who acquired TXA. On the similar time, there was no statistically vital distinction in blood loss, transfusion charges, or incidence of pulmonary embolisms and deep venous thrombosis. Though the 2 teams achieved vital enchancment following TAR based mostly on the MOXFQ outcomes, the TXA group’s outcomes had been superior. The restrictions of this research embody its retrospective nature and the comparatively small pattern dimension. 


Tranexamic acid is confirmed to be secure and efficient in lowering postoperative bleeding and sustaining hemostasis after deflating tourniquet, thereby lowering swelling and wound problems like breakdown and dehiscence postoperatively. It has a optimistic impression on post-operative useful outcomes. Future research are underway with an even bigger pattern dimension evaluating the position of TXA in wound therapeutic after whole ankle substitute.


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